# Introduction to Excel Financial Functions

Financial functions in Excel have been made available to execute a variety of financial calculations, including calculations of yield, investment valuations, interest rates, internal rate of return, asset depreciation, payments and more.

Today we are going to look at 5 most frequently used financial functions that are illustrated in the table below.

# Present Value (PV)

• PV helps you to find the present value of money.
• PV(Rate, Nper, Pmt, Fv), where:
• Rate – interest rate;
• Nper – the number of periods;
• Pmt – payment;
• Fv – future value

Let’s find PV (present value of money) for this question on the screen.

\$2.92 Million is the PV of \$7 Million in 5 years, which means that in order to get \$7M in 5 years, you have to have \$2.92M now.

# Interest Rate Calculation (RATE)

RATE function calculates the interest rate required to pay off a loan or to reach a target amount on investment, over a given period.

• RATE(Nper, Pmt, PV, FV), where:
• Nper – the number of periods;
• Pmt – payment;
• PV – present value;
• Fv – future value

Let’s find RATE for this question on the screen.

As you can see from the answer we’ve got, you need 6% of the interest rate on your investment in order to get \$7 million in 5 years.

# Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

Internal Rate of Return is a metric used in capital budgeting to estimate the profitability of potential investments.

Let’s take a look at our example below.

So, 23% is the rate of return on \$45,000 investment that you would receive in 5 years – definitely worth buying this software.

# Net Present Value (NPV)

Net Present Value (NPV) is the calculation used to find today’s value of a future stream of payments.

• NPV(Rate,Value1,Value2,…), where:
• Rate – Interest Rate;
• Value 1, Value 2, etc. – Cash Flows over the years

In our example, the net present value is \$34.36, which is the current value of the 4 years cash flow.

# Payment (PMT)

PMT is used to get the periodic payment of the loan.

• PMT(Rate,Nper,Pv,Fv), where:
• Rate – interest rate;
• Nper – number of periods;
• Pv – present value;
• Fv – future value.

Let’s find PMT for this question on the screen.

As you can see, \$1,186.98 is the annual payment you need to make to pay off the \$5,000 loan in 5 years.

# Excel Financial Functions List

A list of Excel Financial Functions is provided below for your reference:

• Investment value functions including FV, FVSCHEDULE, NPV, PV, RECEIVED, XNPV.
• The internal rate of return functions including IRR, MIRR, XIRR.
• Asset depreciation functions including AMORDEGRC, AMORLINC, DB, DDB, SLN, SYD, VDB.
• Payment functions including: CUMIPMT, CUMPRINC, IPMT, ISPMT, PMT, PPMT.
• Dollar conversion including: DOLLARDE, DOLLARFR.
• Yield functions including YIELD, YIELDDISC, YIELDMAT, ODDFYIELD, ODDLYIELD, TBILLEO, TBILLYIELD.
• Price functions including: PRICE, PRICEDISC, PRICEMAT, ODDFPRICE, ODDLPRICE, TBILLPRICE.

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